Between 1947 and 1956, “more than five million…

Between 1947 and 1956, “more than five million federal workers underwent loyalty screening.” and at least 25,000 were subjected to a stigmatizing “full field investigation” by the FBI. An estimated 2,700 federal employees were dismissed and about 12,000 resigned.
Those most affected according to Historian Landon Storr, “were a group of leftists who shared a commitment to building a comprehensive welfare state” that blended central planning and grassroots democracy… Before loyalty investigations pushed this cohort either out of government or toward the center of the political spectrum, the transformative potential of the New Deal was greater than is commonly understood… “The purge of communists and radicals from organized labor from 1947 through 1950 was the principal reason for the decline in the AFL-CIO’s commitment to the struggle against racial segregation.”